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C A N I S   M A J O R

 

ori.gif (1448 bytes) Mythology and history

Mythology of Canis Major

     The symbolism of Canis Major and its star more shining Syrian goes back at least to the third millenium before ours was. During that time, Syrian, who also was well-known under the name of Sothis , was the star of reference of the calendar the Egyptian zodiac. Heliaco his orto (that is to say, the first and brief appearance before the aurora, after a period of several months without being seen) took place in the middle of July and agreed with the annual swelling of the Nile: the flood of the fluvial valley was indispensable to maintain the Earth fertility and was, therefore, the base of the life and well-being of Egypt.

     

In the extensive history of Egypt, Syrian received many different interpretations, including among them the identification with the Isis goddess, sister and consorte of the great God Osiris, divinity related to Orión. At certain moment, when the cult of Isis was extended until being fused with the dedicated one to the goddess is vacant Hator; Syrian became the star of Isis-Hator, deciphers as he stars with cow horns. Nevertheless, the symbolism of the dog is oldest. Syrian identified itself with Anubis, the God with chacal head, that for of guide of deads, like Hermes in Greece. Anubis invented the art of embalsamar and was the gentleman of the funeral rites; also it weighed the souls died in the Balance of Justice to decide his destiny in the life after the death.


     In addition, the Egyptian tradition associated to Syrian with " the days of the dog days ", an identification that seems to be the origin of the Star name of the Dog that received Syrian. " The days of the dog days " talked about in their origin to the period of 40 days at the beginning of every sotíaco year, that agreed with the warmest days of the summer. The classic authors often compared the power of Syrian with the one of the Sun, and some times represented the star with a ray crown. The Sirio name has its origin in the Greek word serious, that means " ardent ", and it was said that this star was able to cause a mortal fever, like, for example, the rage of the dogs.

     The Greeks adopted the referring oldest traditions to Syrian, but they incorporated the star to the framework of his own mythology. As much the Dog Greater as the Smaller Dog belonged to the Orión hunter; also in the stellar mythology of Mesopotamia we found the image of the dog tended on the feet of a giant man, as if it wanted to jump upon the Lepus hare, located to the feet of Orión.

     Several authors, among them the Roman poet Ovid (43 b.C.-17a.C.), saw in another one of these dogs Maira , the faithful dog of Icario (represented by Bootes); the name of Maira means " brilliance ". Nevertheless, the modern constellation of Canes Venatici also is a reasonable candidate for this paper.

     Another one of the traditions represents Canis Major with the form of the terrible Cerbero , the dog of three heads that in Greek mythology keeps the doors from the inferior world of the Hades (Hell). With myths usually it happens that a set of apparently unconnected images contains common elements to all. Cerbero keeps the Hades, that is the kingdom of deads, which remembers to us that Anubis (Sirius) had been the guide of deads and could enter the prohibited kingdom. History of Maira also fits here, because this one went the dog that guided Erígone until the buried body of Icario, here also we found the paper of guardian or servant of the death like center topic of history.

     If an interesting parallelism is drawn, it will be discovered that, for Chinese, the Syria it was the Tian Lang, the celestial chacal. The southern stars of Canis Major represented the arc and the arrow with which death to Tian Lang occurred him, after it had sacked the body of the Chinese king.

 

ori.gif (1448 bytes) Characteristics

        Canis Major is a constellation of more or less small size that it is in the hemisphere South, next to the celestial and visible equator during the months of November to March in the North hemisphere and from October to May in the South hemisphere. It emphasizes in the constellation its star the more shining Sirius, most shining of the firmament and that calls the attention in the nights you cold of winter in the North hemisphere.

      Canis Major is to the south of Monoceros, is contiguous with Lepus and Columba to the east to the south with Columba and Puppis and to the west, also with Puppis, next to the celestial and immersed equator in the Milky Route that crosses in the sector the northwest, therefore, is a rich constellation in clusters and shining stars.

      Canis Major I located the 14 to it of December of 1981 at the age of 14 years, in one cold night of end of autumn in the Mediterranean sea.

  

Constellation of Canis Major

Main stars

               Alpha , a ; denominated Sirius or Dog days . It is the star most shining of the firmament. Its magnitude is of -1.44, is to 8.60 years light of us.   She is of color white and it comprises of a binary system whose second component is a white dwarf of magnitude eighth in invisible an elliptical orbit of 49 years but with medium telescopes by the brightness of the main one. The double in 1862 by A. G. was discovered Clark.

                Beta, b ; one is to the east of Sirius and next to the constellation of Lepus. Also Murzim , Mirzam or Mirza are called . Light of us is to 500 years, its magnitude is of 1,98, of blue color, is a relatively young blue giant 3000 times more luminous than the Sun Form also leaves from a binary system.

                Gamma, g ; denominated Muliphen , Isis or Mirza , one is to the west of Sirius, his magnitude is of 4.11 of blue color. Light of us is to 400 years. It is 300 times more luminous than the Sun Is member of the group of the Pleiads, it is to say formed in this cluster and by his own movement it is had displaced more of 60º in southwestern direction.

                Delta, d ; Light is to the south of the constellation to 1,800 years, its magnitude is of 1.84 of yellow color denominated Wezen . It is a giant 50,000 times more luminous than our Sun.

                Epsilon, e ; denominated Adara or Adhara , of magnitude 1.53 and blue color, it stars therefore, young person. Light is to 430 years being 4,000 more luminous than our Sun. Form starts off, like g , of the group of the Pleiads.

 

Other objects

              M 41, cluster of magnitude 4.50, great size 38' of arc, brilliant and little concentration towards the center. Formed by 150 stars between eighth and treceava magnitude. Light is to 2,400 years.   It has a considered age of 100 million years.          

 

ori.gif (1448 bytes) Observations by telescope

C L U S T E R

NGC:2287

M:41

R.A.: 06h.45m.

Dec: -20º42'

Mag:5.0

Dim:30' AOC: 438 C.&N.O.C.:118
S. & D.D.: 00h.29m.(UT); 10-Nov.-1985  

m41

 

     NOTE: One is in a rich zone; it is a spectacular cluster, with a diameter of average degree and with more than 160 observable stars, the best vision obtains with the eyeglass of 100x and the small interioridades with the one of 200x; pársec is to 700, or to 2,800 years light, it has an age of 190 million years, and the spectral component more young person is of the type B 3 . The right the structure of the cluster can be observed, as I observed that night.

 

C L U S T E R

NGC:2204

M:--

R.A.: 06h.13m.

Dec: -18º35'

Mag: 8.6

Dim:5' AOC: 439 C.&N.O.C.: 119
S. & D.D.:00h.42m.(UT);10-Nov.-1985  

ngc2204

                NOTE: One is in a very rich zone; it is formed by ten stars of the same magnitude, has angles of position of 300º and 90º. It is a pretty and simple cluster.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: h 2341 R.A.: 06h.44m.

Dec: -20º38'

Mag: 8.5, 9.1 Sep.: 45" P.A.: 84º Nat:? Spec.: A,A
AOC: 447 DSC: 324 S. & D.D.: 23h.48m.(UT); 07-Dec.-1985

h2341

        NOTE: One is in the center of the cluster M41; there is a small difference of magnitude, both components are white, is pretty and delicate, it is unfolded with the eyeglass of 50x.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: S 650 R.A.: 07h.25m.

Dec: -18º23'

Mag: 7.4, 8.5 Sep.: 39" P.A.: 116º Nat: f Spec.: B,A
AOC: 515 DSC: 365 S. & D.D.: 18h.55m.(UT); 15-Mar.-1986

s650

NOTE: One is in a rich zone; there is a slight difference of magnitude, are very separated, it is one pretty double, it is unfolded without difficulty with the eyeglass of 50x.

 

D O U B L E

Nom:S 1097 R.A.: 07h.26m.

Dec: -11º27'

Mag: 6.0, 8.5, 9.5 Sep.(AB): 20"

Sep.(AC): 23"

P.A.(AB): 313º

P.A.(AC): 157º

Nat:f Spec.:K, A, ?
AOC: 516 DSC: 366 S. & D.D.: 18h.59m.(UT);15-Mar.-1986

sigma1097

       NOTE: One is in a rich zone; there is a great difference of magnitude between components AB and less in BC; they are slightly separated, the main one I see it orange, however, the secondary one seems to me white, without being able to find out the color of the tertiary one, by its weakness since it costs to identify it, is unfolded with the eyeglass of 50x.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: n R.A.: 06h.34m.

Dec: -18º34'

Mag: 6.4, 8.0 Sep.: 17" P.A.: 260º Nat:f Spec.: B,K
AOC: 710 DSC: 515 S. & D.D.: 18h.58m.(UT);31-Jan.-1987

vi

            NOTE: One is in a partially rich zone; a slight difference of magnitude exists, are something separated, in relation to the color, the secondary one is orange, however, the main one I see it green, by the resistance of colors this must be blue, is one pretty double, 7; easy to locate unfolding itself with 50x.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: S 534 R.A.: 06h.41m.

Dec: -22º24'

Mag: 6.5,8.6 Sep.: 18" P.A.: 141º Nat: ? Spec.:A,K
AOC: 711 DSC: 516 S. & D.D.: 20h.03m.(UT); 31-Jan.-1987

s534

        NOTE: One is in a partially rich zone; there is a great difference of magnitude, are slightly separated, the main one I see white it, however, secondary orange, the easy one to locate it is unfolded with the eyeglass of 50x.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: S 538 R.A.: 06h.48m.

Dec: -24º06'

Mag: 7.2,8.6 Sep.: 27" P.A.: Nat:? Spec.:?,?
AOC:713 DSC:518 S. & D.D.: 20h.21m.(UT);31-Jan.-1987

D O U B L E

Nom: S 537 R.A.: 06h.48m.

Dec: -24º01'

Mag: 5.7, 7.8, 8.2 Sep.(AB): 1.8"

Sep.(AC): 31"

P.A.(AB): 206º

P.A.(AC): 280º

Nat(AB): f

Nat(AC): ?

Spec.: ?, ?, ?
AOC: 714 DSC:519 S. & D.D.:20h.25m.(UT);31-Jan.-1987

s538

     

    NOTE: One is in a partially rich zone; component AC denominates S to him 538, however, to component AB B 324 is calledto him; as characteristic of S 538 it is possible to mention the slight difference of magnitude between the components without identifying the color of both, but unfolding itself with the eyeglass of 50x.

       In relation to B324 an eyeglass of 200x is inprescindible to unfold it, there is very little difference of magnitude, and also, profit not to identify the colors of both.

    As a whole it turns out to be a showy but out of proportion triple in relation to the distances, although system is stirring the east observer.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: e R.A.: 06h.57m.

Dec: -28º54'

Mag: 1.6,7.5 Sep.: 7.5" P.A.: 161º Nat:f Spec.: B,?
AOC: 715 DSC: 520 S. & D.D.: 20h.37m.(UT);31-Jan.-1987

epsilon

            NOTE: One is in a partially rich field; there is a great difference of magnitude between the components, the distance that separates to them is ideal, is a pain the desporporción of brightness, the pirncipal is blue, however, profit not to identify the color of the secondary one, in addition it is essential to use an eyeglass of 200x to unfold it.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: S 541 R.A.: 06h.54m.

Dec: -22º35'

Mag: 8.0, 9.0 Sep.: 23" P.A.: 51º Nat:f Spec.: ?,?
AOC: 716 DSC: 521 S. & D.D.: 20h.41m.(UT);31-Jan.-1987

s541

            NOTE: One is in a partially rich zone; there is a slight difference of magnitude, the distance that separates to them I can consider it like ideal, due to the brightness weakness I have not been able to identify the color of the components, is unfolded without difficulty with the eyeglass of 50x.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: h 3938 R.A.: 07h.12m.

Dec: -22º49'

Mag: 6.5,8.3 Sep.: 20" P.A.: 250º Nat:f? Spec.:?, ?
AOC: 717 DSC: 522 S. & D.D.: 20h.51m.(UT);31-Jan.-1987

h3938

        NOTE: A slight difference of magnitude between the components, the distance exists that separates to them is ideal, profit not to identify the colors, is one pretty double, is unfolded with the eyeglass of 50x.

 

C L U S T E R

NGC:2360

M:--

R.A.: 07h.15m.

Dec: -15º32'

Mag: ?

Dim:12' AOC: 719 C.&N.O.C.: 198
S. & D.D.: 21h.01m.(UT); 31-Jan.-1987  

ngc2360

            NOTE: It is a cluster formed by 16 stars, but he is so dense, that with the eyeglass of 200x a great completely granulated cluster is observed; I believe that the direction is of 80º. It is a very pretty accumulation. Parsecs is located to 1,630, with an age of 1,300 million years, and with especro stellar more young person of B8, has a loose concentration towards the center, formed by more than fifty stars.

 

C L U S T E R

NGC:2362

M:--

R.A.: 07h.16m.

Dec: -24º56'

Mag: 4.6

Dim:7'x5' AOC: 720 C.&N.O.C.: 199
S. & D.D.: 21h.08m.(UT); 31-Jan.-1987  

ngc2362

            NOTE: It is a very pretty cluster, I can count on 12 stars oriented with an angle of 180º, novena a few and the rest of tenth magnitude, in the center appears a shining star that it does not make difficult the observation, is a very young cluster of only 25 million years, and with the youngest phantom corresponding to Or8, are formed by more than 60 stars, exist a strong concentration towards the center and exist cloudiness associated to the accumulation but nonvisible with the R-90mm.

 

C L U S T E R

NGC:2383

M:--

R.A.: 07h.23m.

Dec: -20º56'

Mag: 8.4

Dim:8' AOC: 721 C.&N.O.C.: 200
S. & D.D.: 21h.11m.(UT);31-Jan.-1987  

C L U S T E R

NGC:2384

M:--

R.A.: 07h.25m.

Dec: -21º01'

Mag:7.4

Dim:2.5' AOC:722 C.&N.O.C.: 201
S. & D.D.: 21h.11m.(UT); 31-Jan.-1987  

ngc2383

       

NOTE: NGC2383: One is in a partially rich zone, it is observed totally granulated, distinguishing four stars, is a very small cluster but pretty, parsecs is located to 2,000, has a strong concentration towards a the center, the phantom of the youngest star is To3.

        NGC2384: Like the previous one three stars of an accumulation with a strong concentration are distinguished one towards the center and also, located to 2,000 parsecs, the youngest star has a phantom of B8.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: S 516 R.A.: 06h.19m.

Dec: -24º58'

Mag: 8.2, 8.3, 7.1 Sep.(AB): 61"

Sep.(AC): 150"

P.A.(AB):

P.A.(AC): 243º

Nat(AB): ?

Nat(AC): ?

Spec.:A,A,B
AOC: 875 DSC: 659 S. & D.D.: 22h.10m.(UT);21-Dec.-1987

s516

            NOTE: One is in a partially rich zone; components AB and AC are very separated, unfolding both with the eyeglass of 50x; the components To and B I see white them, and the C I create to see it of blue color.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: S 517 R.A.: 06h.20m.

Dec: -24º57'

Mag: 7.0,8.0 Sep.: 10" P.A.: 170º Nat:? Spec.:A,?
AOC: 876 DSC: 660 S. & D.D.: 22h.27m.(UT);21-Dec.-1987

s517

    NOTE: One is in a partially rich zone; there is a slight difference of brightness between the components, are something tight although it is unfolded without difficulty with the eyeglass of 50x, the main one I see white it, however, profit not to identify the color of the secondary one.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: S 518 R.A.: 06h.24m.

Dec: -16º13'

Mag: 6.7,9.1 Sep.: 16.6" P.A.: 88º Nat: f Spec.: A, ?
AOC: 877 DSC: 661 S. & D.D.: 22h.35m.(UT);21-Dec.-1987

s518

    NOTE: One is in a partially rich zone; there is a remarkable difference of brightness between the components; they are slightly separated, unfolding itself with the eyeglass of 50x, the main one I see white it, however, profit not to identify the color of the secondary one.

 

C L U S T E R

NGC:2345

M:--

R.A.: 07h.08m.

Dec: -13º10'

Mag: 7.7

Dim:12' AOC: 883 C.&N.O.C.: 218
S. & D.D.: 23h.48m.(UT);21-Dec.-1987  

ngc2345

    NOTE: One is in a rich zone; one is a cluster formed by twelve stars of magnitude 8,5 and 9,0, therefore, with a moderate rank of brightness; and with a remarkable concentration towards the center; it has form of V; parsecs is to 1,800, with an age of 79 million years and with a phantom corresponding to the youngest star of A2.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: h 3945 R.A.: 07h.17m.

Dec: -23º19'

Mag: 4.8,6.8 Sep.: 26.6" P.A.: 55º Nat:? Spec.:K,F
AOC: 885 DSC: 667 S. & D.D.: 22h.45m.(UT);27-Dec.-1987

h3945

        NOTE: One is in a rich zone; there is a remarkable difference of brightness between the components, are slightly separated unfolding itself with the eyeglass of 50x; the main one I see orange and secondary the rather white one it, although its phantom is F.

 

D O U B L E

Nom:Brs 02 R.A.: 07h.17m.

Dec: -30º54'

Mag: 6.3,8.1 Sep.: 37.9" P.A.: 182º Nat:f Spec.: A,A
AOC: 886 DSC: 668 S. & D.D.: 22h.50m.;(UT); 27-Dec.-1987

D O U B L E

Nom: h 3949 R.A.: 07h.19m.

Dec: -30º48'

Mag: 7.7,8.0 Sep.: 3.1" P.A.: 90º Nat:f Spec.: B, ?
AOC: 887 DSC: 669 S. & D.D.: 22h.54m.(UT);27-Dec.-1987

brso2

       

NOTE: Brs Or2: One is in a rich zone; there is a remarkable difference of brightness, are slightly separated, ambs component I see them of white color, is unfolded without difficulty with the eyeglass of 50x.

        h 3949: One is to only 30' to the east of BrsO2; there is a small difference of brightness between the components, the main one I see it of blue color, however, profit not to identify the color of the secondary one, is unfolded with the eyeglass of 100x.

 

C L U S T E R

Cr: 121

M:--

R.A.: 06h.54m.

Dec: -24º38'

Mag:3.79

Dim: 50' AOC: 927 C.&N.O.C.: 221
S. & D.D.: 00h.14m.(UT);03-Dec.-1989  

cr121

        NOTE: One is in a rich zone; it is formed by twenty stars of which I observe a fifteen; it is a dispersed cluster oriented with angles of position of 110º and 330º, is formed by ten stars of the eighth and five of the novena and, also, of the tenth magnitude, showing, therefore, a moderate rank of brightness. Parsecs is to 700 and in him the major star or canis is immersedis whose phantom is B3; the cluster has an age of 13 million years and one +33 radial speed of Km/s.

 

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