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T E L E S C O P I C A L

O B S E R V A T I O N S

 

m13.jpg (27742 bytes) Introduction

   

The observations that I have made to date are ordered by constellations & have been made with the refractor telescope of focal length 1400 mm & 90 mm of diameter with equatorial mount & the Vixen mark, acquired the January 4th, 1983.

 

     The observations to date have been made from the following sites:

Inca

Majorca

Spain

 

Longitude: 02o51'48"E

Latitude: +39o43'12"

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Ca'n Picafort

Majorca

Spain

 

Longitude: 03º10'18"E

Latitude: +39º45'36"

 

 

m13.jpg (27742 bytes) Bibliography

    For the observations by telescope I have used to date following books.

Guía del firmamento of José Luís Comellas (Editorial Rialp; ISBN: 84-321-1976-8)

Sky Catalogue 2000.0 Vol. 2 of Alan Hirshfeld & R. Sinnot (Editorial Sky Publishing Corporation, Cambrige, Massachusetts; ISBN: 0-933346-39-5)

 

Messier, Charles (1730-1817), , French astronomer born in Badonviller, famous still by the valuable catalogue of celestial objects with cloudy aspect that compiled from 1758 to 1784. Messier denominated to these cloudy objects & the intention of the catalogue was to help other astronomers to distinguish these objects of comets. Messier also distinguished itself by his comet discoveries . Still today he is considered his catalogue because he includes galaxies & clusters of stars, as well as true nebulas. The number of order of the catalogue is continued using to designate the objects that it enumerated, that is to say, M1, M2 & asi... up to 116; & nowadays they represent a fantastic catalogue of observation to begin in the world of Astronomy.

Charles Messier

 

 

m13.jpg (27742 bytes) Types of observations

    All the made observations of the firmament are catalogued based on the stellar object observed in three different catalogues or pages that already are available of the Web. As well as ordered by constellations  & date of discovery &/or study. The made observations correspond to the visible consteciones from Majorca, Spain from the latitude +40º

  

   General catalogue of objects: It includes to all the stellar objects that I have observed to date where stellar galaxies, clusters are included, globular, clusters clusters diffuse & planetary, and, finally, double stars.

 

 

m13.jpg (27742 bytes) Double stars

   Double star catalogue : They include to double stars, triple or orbital systems formed by more than three stars than orbit around a central star or stars main.

   More than half of stars of the firmament they are, in fact, members of systems of two stars or multiple star systems. Some near double or binary stars appear separated when it is observed them through telescopes, but to the majority it detects them like doubles only by spectroscopic means. The double stars are composed by two next stars & that turn in an orbit around their center of common mass. These double stars were described for the first time in 1803 by the British astronomer William Herschel.

    Binary the spectroscopic ones , identified for the first time in 1889, are not separable visually by means of the telescope, but they are possible to be recognized duplicating or widening the lines of the phantom when it turns the pair of stars. When one of the components moves away of the Earth, the other comes near her; the lines of the phantom of the star that moves away move towards the red one, whereas those of the star that advances they move towards the violet is denominated, therefore, Doppler effect.

    Another type of double star is the eclipsante variable call . The stars of this type are formed by a more shining component & darker other. Vista from the Earth, when the orbit is so that the palest star eclipsa to most shining, the intensity of the light that arrives from the star oscillates with regularity, so it is the case that you can find in the Web of star b lyrae & can see the precious curve of light of the orbital system.

M40

   The investigations have demonstrated that one of each two or three visible stars with telescope of moderate size is a double star. Thousand of binary lines of vision & many binary hundreds of spectroscopic have been studied with great thoroughness. These stars are the main source of information on the stellar masses.

    Next the catalogue which I have to date made of all double stars or multiplicates appears that I have observed. Being the file of great size I have preferred to divide it in groups of 200 double stars.

 

 

m13.jpg (27742 bytes) Star catalogue

         Except relatively few visible stars at first, to stars one denominates by means of numbers in agreement with atlases & star catalogues made by the astronomical observatories. The first star catalogue was work of Greek astronomer Tolomeo in century II d.C. Known like Almagesto, enumerated the names & the positions of 1,028 stars. In 1603, the German astronomer Johann Bayer published in Augsburgo a stellar atlas. Bayer mentioned an amount of stars much greater than Tolomeo & she designated by means of a Greek letter & the constellation, or celestial configuration to them, where it appears the star.

    In century XVIII, the English astronomer John Flamsteed also published an atlas in which the stars were denominated according to their constellation, but Flamsteed differentiated them with numbers instead of letters. This atlas contained the situation of 3,000 stars. The first modern star catalogue, made in 1862 by the Observatory of Bonn, in Germany, contains the situation of more than 300,000 stars.

    In 1887 an international committee began to work in a detailed star catalogue. It was made from photographies taken by about 20 observatories, including 21,600 individual boards, that show of 8 10 million stars.

    The modern star catalogues are not books, but copies of taken photographic crystal boards with long-range telescopes. The first important report of this type completed in the middle of the Fifties, using the telescope Schmidt of 1.22 ms in Hard-twisted Mount (U.S.A.). Each board covers a region with the sky of 6° by 6°, & 1,035 maps cover all the visible sky from this place. The assembly of maps corresponding to the south of the sky has been made using telescopes Schmidt in Australia & Chile.

 

m13.jpg (27742 bytes) Classification of stellar spectrums

    The photographic study of the stellar phantoms initiated in 1885 the American astronomer Edward Pickering in the Observatory of Harvard College & it concluded his colleague Annie J. Cannon. This investigation lead to the important discovery that the stellar phantoms can be had in a continuous sequence according to the relative intensity certain lines of absorption. The variations observed within the sequence provide data of the ages of different stars & their degrees of development.

Diagram H-R

Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

     The position in diagram H-R of the point that represents a star corresponds to its brightness & its temperature. The stars of the left of the diagram are blue because they are warm, & those of the right they are red because they are you cold. The band diagonal that goes straight from the left end superior to the inferior one denominates main sequence. The stars of the superior end straight are giant red, although they are you cold & red, they are very shining because they are very great. The stars near the inferior end (known as dwarfed white) are very warm, but not very shining because they are small. This diagram was developed independently by a Danish, Ejnar Hertzsprung , & a American, Henry Norris Russell .

    The diverse stages in the sequence of the spectrums, designated with the letters O, B, A, F, G, K & M, are characterized mainly by the variations in the intensity of the lines of hydrogen that occur by all the sequence. In addition, the lines of other elements get to be remarkable in different stages. The subscripts from the 0 to the 9 are used to indicate the successions in the model within each types.

Type O

    This group characterizes itself in the first place by the lines of helium, oxygen & nitrogen, in addition to the lines of hydrogen. The group O that includes very hot stars, includes so much those that show to spectrums of line shining of hydrogen & helium, like that show dark lines of elements such.

Type B

   In this group the lines of helium reach the Maxima intensity in the subdivision B2 & wanes progressively in higher subdivisions. The intensity of the lines of hydrogen increases of constant form in all the subdivisions. This group is represented by the star e Orionis.

 

Type A

   This group includes the calls hydrogen stars with phantoms dominated by the lines of absorption of hydrogen. A typical star of this group is Sirius.

 

Type F

   In this group the calls lines H & calcium K & the lines characteristic of hydrogen are strong. A remarkable star in this category  is d aquilae.

 

Type G

    This group includes stars with strong lines less strong H & calcium K & lines of hydrogen. Also the spectrum of many metals are present, in special the iron. The Sun belongs to this group & for that reason to stars G it denominates stars to them of solar type frequently.

 

Type K

   To this group the stars that have forts lines of calcium & lines belong that indicate the presence of other metals. The violet light of the spectrum is less intense, compared with the red light of the classes before mentioned. This group is tipiphycate by Arturo or a bootis.

 

Type M

    This group includes stars with phantoms dominated by bands that are from the presence of metallic oxide molecules, mainly those of titanium oxide. The violet end of the spectrum is less intense than the one of stars K.  The star Betelgeuse, a Orionis, is a typical star of this group.

    All these characteristics are compatible with the conclusion that the stars of these classes are all of similar chemical composition & are organized in an order of temperature of hotter to more cold. The temperatures of the surface of several groups are approximately the following ones: O, 22.200 °C; B, 13.900 °C; A, 10.000 °C; F, 6.650 °C; G, 5.540 °C; K, 3.870 °C; & M, 1.760 °C.The temperature in the center of the average star is of 20.000.000 °C.

 

m13.jpg (27742 bytes) Clusters

    Both known open clusters more are the Pleyade & the Hyades, both observable ones at first, in the constellation Taurus. The cluster of the Hyads is to about 150 light-years & has an apparent diameter of 5 º, ten times the apparent size of the Moon; the real diameter of the cluster is of about 15 light-years. The cluster of the Pleyade (popularly known as the Seven sisters) has a similar real diameter, but is to a distance of about 400 light-years and, therefore, its diameter pretends is of 2 º. Esteem that the age of the Hyades is of about 660 million years. The cluster of the Pleiads is much more young & it formed during last the 80 million years; the age of the hottest & shining members does not surpass few million years.

M45

 

    The clusters form from clouds of gas & dust in the arms of a spiral galaxy. Denser regions of the cloud are occasionally contracted under the pull towards the interior exerted by their own gravity, giving rise to individual stars. The nebula of Orion is an example of a region in which still the star formation is taking place. In the center of the nebula is an old star group known like the Trapeze. Within the nebula there is sufficient amount of gas as to form other hundreds of stars of the same type.

 

M42

 

    It is known as stellar association the star grouping that contains amounts similar to an cluster, but distributed on much mayores areas. Often clusters opened inside an association can be found, in zones where the density of the gas from as formed the association is greater. Three main types of associations exist: the associations OB, that are formed by hot massive stars of spectral classes O & B; associations R, which they are formed by stars of intermediate mass whose light is reflected by the dust that around exists to, & the associations T, which young similars to the Sun are formed by slight stars and, being the star prototype the T Tauri. Probably, all stars begin his lives forming part of clusters or associations, that undoes with the time    

    & to the movable clusters as the members of an cluster are born together, seems logical that they continue moving together by the space. This provides a very powerful method to find its distances. If the stars move away of us, seem to converge towards a distant point like result of the perspective. Measuring the movement of stars throughout the line of sight (its radial speeds) -- using the Doppler effect -- & through the line of sight (its own movements), according to move towards the convergence point, are possible to be calculated its distances to us from simple geometry. This technique is known like the method of the movable cluster, & works well, in individual for the Hyades, that is a great & relatively near cluster. In fact, the finding of the distance to the Hyades by this method constitutes an important step in the construction of the scale of distances of the Universe.

    The observed ones to date I have them catalogued in the following attached file. Due to its size I have preferred to divide them in groups of 200.

 

 

 

m13.jpg (27742 bytes) Globular clusters

    It is a spherical or almost spherical group of old stars. They contain between 100,000 & 10 million stars & have diameters of about 100 light-years. Both more shining clusters, both observable ones at first, are in the austral hemisphere: w Centauri & 47 Tucanae. The more remarkable globular cluster of the boreal hemisphere is M 13, in the constellation Hercules, who can be appraised at first in one night cleared. In the globular cluster, the star concentration in the central part can be 100,000 times greater than in the region of the space occupied by us, & from the terrestrial perspective it can seem that the stars megre to each other.

 

M13

 

    The globular clusters are in I haul ball around our galaxy, the Milky way, & follow elliptical orbits around their center. In our galaxy 140 well-known globular clusters are known about, although many of them can be in favor hidden at sight of clouds of dust & gas. Also globular clusters around other galaxies can be seen. The galaxies in spiral have a number of globular clusters similar to the one of our galaxy, but the elliptical galaxies can have up to ten times.

    The globular clusters more contain some of the oldest stars of our galaxy, with ages of 10,000 million years or more, more of twice the age of the Sun. That type of so old stars says that they belong to population II. The age of an cluster can be considered by means of the representation of its stars in a diagram of Hertzsprung-Russell. Since the speed of evolution of a star depends on its mass, the point in which the star begins to leave the main sequence to become a giant star, shows to the age of the cluster     a sign that sample that a globular cluster is very in an age outpost is that it is frees of gas & interstellar dust, elements that take part in the creation of new stars. Another sign is that the stars that form it contain very small amounts of elements heavier than helium & hydrogen. The Sun, a relatively new star, has a greater proportion of heavy elements than the members of the globular clusters.

     The globular clusters thinks that they formed when the immense cloud of dust & gas that gave rise to our galaxy was colapsando in the flattened form that it has at the present time. As the Sun is in the outer zone of the galaxy, most of the clusters it is in half of the sky towards the center of the galaxy; they are more numerous in the constellations Escorpius, Sagittarius & Ophiuchus. In fact, American astronomer Harlow Shapley deduced the real size & the extension of our galaxy, & our position in the same one, from the study of the distribution of globular accumulations. The distances to the globular accumulations can be thanks to that they contain a type of variable stars, the stars RR Lyrae, that have a well-known luminosity inevitably.

     When the stars move in the field of gravitation of the accumulation happen closely together of the others. That type of encounter affects to the evolution of stars & the one of the accumulation like a whole. Like result, in the accumulations many types of little habitual stars can be. Among them are stars of the main sequence whose development seems to have delayed: their relatively great masses imply that at this moment already they must have evolved to become giants. That type of stars probably began to exist with a smaller mass and, therefore, it has received matter of his pair in a closed binary system, or of a fusion with another star. Other cases in that transference of mass between two stars takes place are púlsares that rotates in few thousandth of second thanks to that they have been impelled by incident matter, & binary of X rays Both types of objects are common in the globular accumulations.

    In some of the delayed stages of the life of a globular cluster, the stars of their interior approach to each other in a phenomenon known like nuclear collapse. This can lead to densities 100 times superior to the habitual ones in the centers of the normal globular clusters, that is to say, 30,000 stars per cubical year light, in front of 3 stars by thousand years light cubical existing in the region where is the Sun.

    To date the observed ones I have them catalogued in the following attached file. Due to its size I have preferred to divide them in groups of 200.

 

 

 

m13.jpg (27742 bytes) Diffuse & planetary nebulosas

    The nebula is a located mass of gases & small particles of dust that can be found in practically any place of the interstellar space. Before the invention of the telescope, the cloudy term was applied to all the celestial objects of diffuse appearance. As a result of this, to many objects that now we know that they are star clusters or galaxies.

     It was called nebulas to them have been detected cloudy in almost all the galaxies, including ours, the Milky Way

    Depending on the age of the stars with which they are associates, the nebulas can be classified in two great groups:

            The associates to stars very evolved: planetary nebulas & surpluses of you supernovae. To planetary nebulas it is called to them thus because many of them are looked like planets when they are observed through a telescope, although in fact are material layers which a star evolved of average mass during its last stage of evolution of red giant was come off before becoming white dwarf. The nebula of Anillo, in the constellation of Lira, is planetary typical that has a period of rotation of a 132,900 years & one mass of 14 times the mass of the Sun. In the Milky Way several thousands of planetary have been discovered. More spectacular, but smaller in number, they are the fragments of explosions of you supernovate (surpluses of you supernovate), & perhaps most famous of these it is the nebula of the Crab, in Taurus, that vanishes at the rate of an annual 0.4%. The nebulas of this type are radiofuentes intense, as a result of the explosions that formed & the probable rest of púlsares that the original stars became.

     The associates to very young stars, some even still in formation process: molecular Herbig-Haro objects & molecular clouds. The Herbig-Haro objects, that must to their name to the Mexican astronomer Guillermo Haro & his American colleague G. Herbig, are small very shining nebulas who are within dense interstellar clouds & are, probably, the product of gas jets expelidos by stars in formation process. The molecular clouds are, on the other hand, extremely great, of wide of a many years light, with an indefinite profile & a tenuous & misty appearance.    

    If it is taken care of the process that originates the light that they emit, the nebulas can be classified in:

    The transmission nebulas are those in which the radiation comes from the dust & gases ionized as a result of the heating that they are put under by very hot near stars. Some of the most surprising objects of the sky, like the nebula of Orion, are cloudy of this type. The currents of matter in these nebulas are intermingled in violent & chaotic.

    The reflection nebulas reflect & disperse the star light little I warm up of their neighborhoods. The Pleiads de Taurus are a good star example shining in a reflection nebula.

    The dark nebulas are luminous clouds little or nothing, that imagines as a dark spot, sometimes surrounded by I pull ahead of light. The reason by that they by themselves do not emit light is that the stars that there is behind find to too much distance to warm up the cloud. One of most famous dark nebulas is the nebula of the Head of Horse, in Orion, call thus by the profile that has the dark mass that locates in front of another nebular region more brilliant. All the dark strip that is observed in the sky when we watched the disc of our galaxy is a dark nebula succession.

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Nebula of the Head of Horse 

  The nebula of the Head of Horse, located to about 1,000 light-years in the Orion constellation, is a dark interstellar cloud of gas & dust. This dark nebula sees from the Earth because it blocks the light of young stars & the gas shining of behind the nebula.

Science Source/Photo Researchers, Inc.

      To date the observed ones I have them catalogued in the following attached file. Due to its size I have preferred to divide them in groups of 200.

 

 

m13.jpg (27742 bytes) Galaxies

    In an enormous assembly of hundreds or thousands of million stars, all interacting gravitatorialmente & orbiting around a common center. All the visible stars at first from the terrestrial surface belong to our galaxy, the Milky Way. The Sun is only one stars of this galaxy. In addition to stars & planets, the galaxies contain accumulations of stars, atomic hydrogen, molecular hydrogen, complex molecules composed of hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon & silicon among other elements, & cosmic rays.

     Persian astronomer, Al-Sufi, has been recognized as first in describing the weak fragment of light in the Andrómeda constellation that we know now that it is a galaxy companion of ours. In 1780, the French astronomer Charles Messier published a list of nonstellar objects that included 32 objects that are, in fact, galaxies. These galaxies now identify by their numbers Messier (M); the Andrómeda galaxy, for example, knows between the astronomers like M31.  

    In the first part century XIX, thousands of galaxies were identified & catalogued by William & Caroline Herschel, & John Herschel. From 1900, great amount of galaxies has been discovered in photographic explorations. These, to enormous Earth distances, appear so tiny in a photography that is very difficult to distinguish them of stars. The greater well-known galaxy has approximately thirteen times more stars than the Milky Way.

 

Vía Láctea

Milky Way

  The Solar System is in one of the spiral arms of the galaxy with disc form called Milky Way. This photography shows the center of the Milky Way, to 30,000 light-years. In the image star clusters shining with dark areas of dust & gas are seen.

Morton-Milon/Science Source/Photo Researchers, Inc.

   

    In 1912 American astronomer Vesto M. Slipher, working in the Observatory Lowell of Arizona (U.S.A.), discovered that the spectral lines of all the galaxies had moved towards the red spectral region. His compatriot Edwin Hubble interpreted this as an evidence of which all the galaxies moved away of others & reached the conclusion that the Universe expanded. Not he knows if he will continue expanding or if matter contains sufficient to restrain expansion of galaxies, so that these, finally, are joined of new.

    When powerful telescopes are used, in most of the galaxies only detects the mixed light of all stars; nevertheless, nearest they show individual stars. The galaxies present/display a great variety of forms. Some have a complete globular profile with a shining nucleus. These called galaxies elliptical contain a great old star population, normally little gas & dust, & some stars of new formation. The elliptical galaxies have great variety of sizes, from giants to dwarves, internationally they are catalogued with the followed letter E of a subscript that goes from the 0 to the 9 based on its ellipse.

M31

 

    On the contrary the classified spiral galaxies with letter S, are flattened discs that also contain not only some old stars but a great young star population, enough gas & dust, & molecular clouds that are the birthplace of stars. Frequently, the regions that contain young stars shining & gas clouds are arranged in great spiral arms that they are possible to be observed surrounding the galaxy. Generally, I pull ahead of weak old stars it surrounds the disc, & usually it exists a nuclear protuberance smaller than emits two spurts of power matter in opposite directions.

    Other galaxies in disc form are denominated irregular. These galaxies also have great amounts of gas, young dust & stars, but its disposition is not in spiral form. In general they are located near greater galaxies & its appearance is probably the result of the gravitational disturbance due to galaxies with more mass. Some very singular galaxies are located in closed three or two groups, & the interactions of their tides have caused distortions of the spiral arms, producing bent discs & long tails in form of serpentines.

    The observed ones to date I have them catalogued in the following attached file. Due to its size I have preferred to divide them in groups of 200.

 

 

m13.jpg (27742 bytes) Observations ordered by constellations

    Next, in table I, all the observations are represented that I have made until fecha;  ordered by constellations since is much more easy the power to find any observation. In order to locate their abbreviations accepted by the I.A.U are represented them.

It is, also, available in my Web the Latin, nominative nomenclature & the genitive of all the constellations, for his more current use.

 Masm © (Last update 10.17.2003)