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S C O R P I U S

 

ori.gif (1448 bytes) Mythology and history

Mythology of Scorpius

     The myth of Scorpius and Orión is perhaps the most famous legend related to celestial mythology and, as we see, its origin goes back at least until the first description of the classic constellations. The form of this constellation really remembers to the one of a scorpion, reason why she is very showy, specially due to the considerable brightness of his main stars, emphasizing the red Antares. So showy it was for the Greeks that extended it until the neighbor, and weak, constellation of Pound, reason why this one would be well-known alternatively in the antiquity like the Clamps.

      As we see, the myth is exactly the same one (to see Orión), which is showy, considering the habitual divergences between Arato and Erathostenes. In any case, as we said in the beginning, one is a constellation whose origin is clearly mesopotámico, like most of the zodiacal constellations, or of the "Way of the Moon", as one denominated them. The first clear reference to this constellation we found it in the Mul-Apin small boards, written up in Asiria during century VII a.C., although without a doubt its origin it we could locate around year 1000 a.C.. If we went back more backwards in the time, we can see this constellation in kudurrus half-full small houses of Babylonia of of the second millenium a.C., being the scorpion one of the figures that with greater certainty appears in these. As much in the Mul-Apin tables, like in kudurrus, this constellation represents the scorpion of the Ishhara goddess (or Ishkhara). Goddess of the Semitic love, I?hara also appears like goddess single-breasted uniform jacket in other traditions. Sometimes it appears like wife of the God Dagan, Semitic God inventive agriculturist of the plow. Its cult had a great importance in the region of Anatolia and between the hurritas. At first, it seems that she was represented by serpents, but as of the Cassita time its symbol would be the scorpion.

            Origin and competitions of this deity not is absolutely sure since traditionally was assimilated it with Ishtar (Inanna for the sumerios), the goddess of the love and the Semitic war whose cult reached an impressive fame in all the Near East (same Aphrodite derives to a large extent from her), reason why is difficult to separate the own attributes of one and another one. Traditionally speech of Ishhara like goddess guardian of the promises and the oaths, although in other sources appears like pattern of the love and the conjugal bed, as it is the case of the Epic of Gilgamesh, characteristic this last perhaps seizure of Ishtar. The allocation of the scorpion as its symbol goes back like minimum to time Ctosituateds, when it was tried to represent each God with a symbol that identified it clearly. What it is not very clear if this relation is previous or no, is done of vital importance to clarify if the frequent scorpions that appear in the cylinders Babylonian seals, acadios and sumerios they have something to see with her, since many of these scorpions apparently make reference to our constellation. Summarizing, the problem is based in knowing if the constellation began to see like the figure of a scorpion due to the association of this animal with the goddess, or the other way around.

       In any case, in the mentioned cylinders seals it frequently appears a scorpion like almost unequivocal symbol of our constellation, with which we would have its origin would go back to the third millenium a.C:, or even before, although when going more back in the time  we submerged in the penumbrae of prehistory and the lack of documents that this entails. In the Epic of Gilgamesh (2000 a.C. approx.) it is already mentioned Hombres-Escorpio'n that guarded the mounts by which it left the sun.

        In the Mul-Apin tables to the constellation the flame simply to gir2- tab, archaic word sumeria that means "scorpion indeed", andn acadio was Zuqaqipu. One was one of the 18 zodiacal constellations. The name sumerio can make think that his origin it is necessary to look for it then and, although this is most probable according to we saw above, is not necessary to forget that sumerio was used in Mesopotamia like liturgical language many centuries after its disappearance like spoken language. It is necessary to consider that leaves from this constellation was well-known like Ur-idim, the wolf.

           In the century I a.C., under the reign of Nabucodonosor II, to the constellation denominated Arajsamna (or Arah Shamna), in reference to the eighth month of the Babylonian calendar, although already was known it like Akrabu ("scorpion"), name under which was popular during the Persian dominion, under which also it names like Kazhdum. This constellation is one of the few that appear mentioned in the Bilblia (in Libro de Job). Later, the Jewish writer Aben Ezra (century XII) identified the constellation with Kesil or 'Akrabh, the tribal emblem of Gives. Riccioli astronomer denominated Acrobo Chaldeis, in reference to the Heatings, town that took control of the power in Babylonia in century VII a.C.. R.H. Allen indicates other possible names for Escorpio in Babylonia (although it is not verified that all make reference to our constellation): Bilu-Shah-ziri ("Gentleman of the Seed"), Lugal Tudda ("King of the Ray") or Kakkab Bir ("Scarlet Star"). He is peculiar that, apparently, some cultures of America saw in this constellation a scorpion. According to V.W, von Hagen, the Mayans denominated to this celestial region Zinaan ek ("the Stars of the Scorpion"). Naturally it has not been the only interpretation, then, for example, for the maoríes ones it was the hook of the mythical Maui hero.

 

ori.gif (1448 bytes) Characteristics

   Scorpius, or the scorpion is a precious constellation of the South hemisphere with form exactly like a scorpion that fits between the parallel of 10º of South latitude and 45º, is observable in the North hemisphere during the months of April to September and in the South hemisphere during the months of autumn, winter and austral spring. The form that it has is easy to also identify emphasizing Antares  or denominated the heart of the Scorpion as the star most shining and red of the constellation.

     During seven only days the Sun remains in this constellation to happen to Ophiuchus, usually is the last week of November when it remains in Scorpius, when forming part of a zodiacal constellation we can contemplate throughout the year planets and the Moon that sometimes can get to hide to Antares, visible spectacular phenomenon at first. On the other hand, also through Scorpius it passes the equator of the Milky Route since it crosses it of the northwest to the south of the same one; therefore, Scorpius is characterized to have an important stellar wealth in stellar, globular and cloudy clusters diffuse visible in its majority with small telescopes.

      Scorpius limits the north with the constellation of Ophiuchus, the east with Libra and Lupus, the south with the constellations of Ara and Norma and the west with Corona Australis, Sagittarius and again Ophiuchus. The constellation of Scorpius I located the 17 of April of 1982 from the locality of Inca, Majorca, Spain to it at the age of 15 years

Constellation of Scorpius

 

Main stars

       Alpha, a; denominated Antares  with a 0.96 magnitude of and spectacular visible reddish color at first, one is a red supergiant 10,700 times more shining than the Sun located to 600 years light of us. When seeing it with a telescope we detected that one is a double star whose component has a magnitude of 5.4 and blue color, but that with the reddish intensity of Antares seems green.

      Beta, b; denominated Grafias or claws, situa to the north of the constellation and part of the claws of the scorpion forms, also is a precious double star formed by two components of magnitude 2.8 and 5.4 both blue ones, the system is located to 530 years Earth light, the prinicpal is a blue giant 2800 times more luminous than our Sun. 

    Delta, d; denominated Dschubba, of blue magnitude 2.30 and, it is located in the claws of the scorpion to the south of b, is to 402 years Earth light, is a blue giant 1530 times more luminous than our Sun.

Other objects

           M 4, spectacular globular cluster located to less of 1º of arc of Antares and very easy to identify, its magnitude is of 5.90, is to 6,800 years Earth light, has an angular diameter of 26', therefore, he is enormous in comparison with other globular clusters.

            M 80, precious globular cluster located to the north of the constellation, magnitude 7.2  and 8,9' of angular diameter, is to 26,000 years Earth light.

           M 7, cluster located to the south of the constellation closely together of Sagittarius, of magnitude 3.3 formed by than 80 stars included more in more of 80' of arc of angular diameter, that are to  780 years Earth light. It has a considered age of 220 million years.

           M 6, cluster located in the southwest of the constellation near M7 and next to Sagittarius, of magnitude 4.2 and angular diameter of 14' of arc, is to 2,000 years Earth light, and has a considered age of 51 million years.

 

ori.gif (1448 bytes) Observations by telescope

D O U B L E

Nom: b R.A.: 16h.02m.

Dec: -19º40'

Mag: 2.8,5.4 Sep.: 14" P.A.: 24º Nat: f Spec.: A, B
AOC: 317 DSC: 229 D.D.S.: 21h.32m.(UT); 17-June-1985

beta

 

            NOTE: One is in a very rich zone. There is a remarkable difference of brightness between the components, are to an ideal distance. The main one I see white it, and secondary the bluish one. It is unfolded without difficulty with the eyeglass of 50x.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: n R.A.: 16h.09m.

Dec: -19º20'

Mag: 4.4, 6.5, 7.8 Sep.(AB): 41"

Sep.(BC): 2.6"

P.A.(AB): 337º

P.A.(BC): 54º

Nat(AB): f

Nat(AC): ph

Spec.: A, A, A
AOC: 318 DSC: 230 D.D.S.: 21h.38m.(UT); 17-June-1985

vi

 

            NOTE: One is in a partially rich zone. There is an enormous difference of brightness in components AB and BC. Component AB is unfolded with 50x, however, component BC with 100x and a good night. The component To I see white it, however, the B as the C I see them blue.

 

D O U B L E

Nom:S 1999 R.A.: 16h.02m.

Dec: -11º19'

Mag: 7.4, 8.2 Sep.: 11" P.A.: 100º Nat: f? Spec.: A, K
AOC: 319 DSC: 231 D.D.S.: 21h.46m.(UT); 17-June-1985

D O U B L E

Nom: z R.A.: 16h.02m.

Dec: -11º14'

Mag: 4.2,7.5 Sep.: 7.5" P.A.: 45º Nat: ph Spec.: K, M
AOC: 320 DSC: 232 D.D.S.: 21h.49m.(UT); 17-June-1985

sigma1999 & zeta

 

            NOTE: S 1999: One is in a zone not very rich. There is a smallest difference of brightness, are something together, is unfolded without difficulty with the eyeglass of 50x. The main one I see white it, and secondary the orange.

            z: One is to only 5' to the north of S 1999. There is a remarkable difference of brightness between the components, are something together, although it is unfolded without difficulty with the eyeglass of 50x, the main one I see it orange and the secondary one is red.

 

GLOBULAR CLUSTER

NGC:6121

M: 4

R.A.: 16h.21m.

Dec: -26º44'

Mag: 5.2 Dim: 14' AOC: 585 CNAO: 176
D.D.S.: 22h.42m.(UT); 10-May.-1986  

m4

 

            NOTE: One is in a zone very rich, next to Antares. One is a globular cluster of weak density, enormous and from enormous value corresponding to the grandiente, they are gotten to distinguish some stars of those worlds, and two zones of brightness corresponding to the nucleus and the periphery.

 

GLOBULAR CLUSTER

NGC:6093

M:80

R.A.: 16h.15m.

Dec: -22º52'

Mag: 6.8 Dim: 3.3' AOC: 586 CNAO: 177
D.D.S.: 22h.52m.(UT); 10-May.-1986  

m80

 

           NOTE: One is in a rich zone. It is a globular cluster weak and smaller than the previous one, distinguish two zones of brightness and is, in addition, less gradient than the previous one. One is a very pretty globular cluster.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: Brs 11 R.A.: 16h.08m.

Dec: -32º31'

Mag: 7.0,7.5 Sep.: 7.8" P.A.: 85º Nat:? Spec.: K, B
AOC: 587 DSC: 410 D.D.S.: 22h.58m.(UT); 10-May.-1986

brs11

 

            NOTE: One is in a rich zone. There is a small difference of brightness are together, the color of the main one is orange, however, it emphasizes the color of the secondary one that is blue. Easy to locate it is unfolded without difficulty with the eyeglass of 50x.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: 12 R.A.: 16h.09m.

Dec: -28º37'

Mag: 5.8, 7.8 Sep.: 4.0" P.A.: 73º Nat: f? Spec.: K, B
AOC: 588 DSC: 411 D.D.S.: 23h.08m.(UT); 10-May.-1986

12

 

            NOTE: One is in a rich zone. There is a remarkable difference of brightness between the components, are something together, the main one I see it orange, and secondary the bluish one. It is unfolded without difficulty with the eyeglass of 50x.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: Brs12 R.A.: 16h.16m.

Dec: -30º47'

Mag: 6.0,7.3 Sep.: 23" P.A.: 319º Nat: f Spec.: A, B
AOC: 589 DSC: 412 D.D.S.: 23h.16m.(UT); 10-May.-1986

brs12

 

                NOTE: One is in a rich zone. It is identified easily, exists a slight difference of brightness between the components, are together, but not too much, their colors are not distinguished very well. Although it seems to me that the main one is white and secondary the bluish one, is unfolded without difficulty with the eyeglass of 50x.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: Sh 225 R.A.: 16h.17m.

Dec: -19º56'

Mag: 7.5, 8.5 Sep.: 47" P.A.: 334º Nat: ? Spec.: B, B
AOC: 590 DSC: 413 D.D.S.: 23h.21m.(UT); 10-May.-1986

D O U B L E

Nom: Sh 226 R.A.: 16h.18m.

Dec: -20º00'

Mag: 7.2,8.2 Sep.: 13" P.A.: 21º Nat: f Spec.: B, K
AOC: 591 DSC: 414 D.D.S.: 23h.21m.(UT); 10-May.-1986

Sh 225 & Sh 226

 

            NOTE: Sh 225: One is in a rich zone. There is a small difference of brightness between the components, is one double something separated. It is unfolded with the eyeglass of 50x, as much the main one as the secondary one I see them blue.

                Sh 226: One is to only 15' to the west of Sh 225. It is a similarity component brightness and identical difference of magnitude. The main one I see bluish and secondary the orange it. More meetings are something than the previous one although it is unfolded without difficulty with the eyeglass of 50x.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: s R.A.: 16h.18m.

Dec: -25º28'

Mag: 3.1, 8.7 Sep.: 20" P.A.: 278º Nat: op Spec.: A, B
AOC: 594 DSC: 417 D.D.S.: 23h.38m.(UT); 10-May.-1986

sigma

 

                NOTE: One is in a partially rich zone. There is a great difference of brightness between the components, the main one I see white it, and secondary the bluish one. Easy to locate it is unfolded with the eyeglass of 50x.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: H 39 R.A.: 16h.22m.

Dec: -29º35'

Mag: 5.9,6.4 Sep.: 4.8" P.A.: 357º Nat: ph Spec.: A, K
AOC: 595 DSC: 418 D.D.S.: 23h.43m.(UT); 10-May.-1986

H 39

 

            NOTE: One is in a rich zone. There is a small difference of brightness, are enough meetings. They form a physical system, the main one is white and the secondary one I see it orange, is unfolded without difficulty with the eyeglass of 50x.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: h 4848 R.A.: 16h.21m.

Dec: -33º05'

Mag: 7.1, 7.6 Sep.: 6.2" P.A.: 153º Nat: f Spec.: A, F
AOC: 596 DSC: 419 D.D.S.: 23h.50m.(UT); 10-May.-1986

h4848

 

            NOTE: One is in a zone, very very rich. There is a slight difference of brightness between the components, separates an ideal distance to them, the main one I see white it, however, with the secondary one I am not absolutely safe, although I create supposition that is yellowish, a smooth yellow color. It is unfolded without difficulty with the eyeglass of 50x.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: a R.A.: 16h.26m.

Dec: -26º19'

Mag: 1.2,5.4 Sep.: 2.6" P.A.: 275º Nat: O Spec.: M, B
AOC: 600 DSC: 420 D.D.S.: 21h.24m.(UT); 10-June-1986

alfa

 

                NOTE: One is Antares, an austral jewel. It is characterized to be formed by a very united pair, of remarkable difference of brightness and of anecdotal colors, since the main one is red, of there is nothing here, but the secondary one seems (green; it is clear that it is impossible, it must to mixture of color of main, that is red with the color of which he is blue, of comes there, the resistance of colors. It is unfolded with the eyeglass of 200x, although also it is necessary one transparent night.

 

C L U S T E R

NGC: 6383

M:-- R.A.: 17h.31m. Dec: -32º33'
Mag: 8.5 Dim: 6' AOC: 601 CNAO: 181
D.D.S.: 21h. 35m.(UT); 10-June-1986  

ngc6383

 

           NOTE: One is in a rich zone, located to 20' to the northeast of a star of magnitude 5.5. It is formed by fifteen stars of the same magnitude, with a direction of 40º, in made oval form. Some and with an appreciable concentration towards the center observed in several nuclei.

 

C L U S T E R

NGC: 6374

M:-- R.A.: 17h.29m. Dec: -32º34'
Mag: 10.0 Dim:18' AOC: 602 CNAO: 182
D.D.S.: 21h.39m.(UT); 10-June-1986  

ngc6374

 

               NOTE: One is in a rich zone. One is a cluster shining, easy to identify not very great, formed by 17 weak stars, with a direction in spiral.

 

C L U S T E R

NGC: 6405

M:6 R.A.: 17h.37m. Dec: -32º11'
Mag: 5.6 Dim: 25' AOC: 603 CNAO: 183
D.D.S.: 22h.01m.(UT); 10-June-1986  

m6

 

           NOTE: One is in a very rich zone. One is a precious cluster with butterfly form. It is formed by 55 stars of different brightness, does not have an appreciable concentration towards the center.

 

C L U S T E R

NGC: 6404

M:-- R.A.: 17h.37m. Dec: -33º13'
Mag: 10.5 Dim: 4' AOC: 604 CNAO: 184
D.D.S.: 22h.02m.(UT); 10-June-1986  

ngc6404

 

            NOTE: One is in a rich zone. One is a small cluster of dimensions, also, small. It is formed by 10 stars without apparent direction some or concentration towards the center.

 

C L U S T E R

NGC: 6416

M:-- R.A.: 17h.41m. Dec: -32º20'
Mag: 8.5 Dim: 20' AOC: 605 CNAO: 185
D.D.S.: 22h.12m.(UT); 10-June-1986  

ngc6416

 

                    NOTE: One is in a rich zone. It has an amorphous form and of it does not pretend concentration towards the center. Of considerable dimensions, it is formed by 30 stars of different brightness

 

D O U B L E

Nom: h 4889 R.A.: 16h.47m.

Dec: -37º25'

Mag: 6.3, 8.4 Sep.: 6.7" P.A.: 05º Nat:ph Spec.: B, K
AOC: 789 DSC: 585 D.D.S.: 21h.37m.(UT); 5-June-1987

h 4889

 

            NOTE: One is in a field not very rich. There is a remarkable difference of brightness, are something together, although it is unfolded with the eyeglass of 200x, the main one I see it blue and secondary the orange, to unfold it would be enough by the separation an ocular minimum, but because the eyeglass of 200x culminates to low height is essential and one transparent night.

 

C L U S T E R

NGC: 6281

M:-- R.A.: 17h01.m. Dec: -37º49'
Mag: 9.3 Dim: 9'x3' AOC: 790 CNAO: 206
D.D.S.: 21h.43m.(UT); 5-June-1987  

ngc6281

 

            NOTE: One is in a partially rich zone. It is a precious stellar, small cluster and with a strong concentration towards the center. It is formed by 18 stars of novena, 9,5 and tenth magnitude, is a cluster with diamond form, is frankly a pain that culminates to so low height.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: h 4878 R.A.: 16h.37m.

Dec: -27º54'

Mag: 8.3, 8.7 Sep.: 8.2" P.A.: Nat: f Spec.: G, G
AOC: 787 DSC: 583 D.D.S.: 21h.25m.(UT); 5-June-1987

h 4878

 

            NOTE: One is in a partially rich zone. There is a small difference of brightness between the components, both I see them of yellow color, is unfolded without difficulty with the eyeglass of 50x.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: D209 R.A.: 16h.45m.

Dec: -36º47'

Mag: 7.5, 8.5 Sep.: 24" P.A.: 140º Nat:op? Spec.: A, A
AOC: 788 DSC: 584 D.D.S.: 21h.30m.(UT); 5-June-1987

delta209

 

            NOTE: One is in a relatively rich field. There is a slight difference of brightness between the components, both components I see white them, is unfolded without difficulty with the eyeglass of 50x.

 

D O U B L E

Nom: 2 R.A.: 15h.54m.

Dec: -25º20'

Mag: 4.7, 7.4 Sep.: 2.5" P.A.: 274º Nat: ? Spec.: B, ?
AOC: 891 DSC: 673 D.D.S.: 21h. 44m.(UT); 2-June-1988

2

 

                NOTE: One is in a rich zone. There is a remarkable difference of brightness between the components, are very tight unfolding itself with the eyeglass of 200x, the main one I see it blue, however, profit not to identify the color of the secondary one.

 

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