S O L A R   S Y S T E M



              This formed by the Sun, nine planets & their satellites, asteroids, & comets & meteoroids, & dust & interplanetary gas. The dimensions of this system specify in terms of medium range of the Earth to the Sun, of nominated astronomical unit (A.U.). 1 A.U. corresponds to 150 million kilometers. The known most distant planet is Pluto, its orbit is to 39.44 A.U. of the Sun. The valour between the Solar System & the interstellar space -- called heliopause -- assumes that it is to 100 AU. The comets, nevertheless, are most distant of the Sun; their orbits are very eccentric, extending up to 50,000 AU or more. The Solar System is the only planetary system existing well-known, although in 1980 were some relatively near stars surroun by a wrapper of orbitant material of an indeterminate size or accompanied by objects that assume that they are dwarfed brown or dwarfed brown. Many astronomers create probable the existence of numerous planetary systems of some type in the Universe.

Solar System


Sun & solar wind

            The Sun is a star characteristic of intermediate size & luminosity. The solar light & other radiations take place by the conversion of helium hydrogen in the ofnse interior & warms up of the Sun Although this nuclear fusion turns 600 million tons of hydrogen per second, the Sun has as much mass (2 × 1027 tons) that can continue shining with its present luminosity during 6,000 billion years.

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         This stability allows to the of velopment of the life & the Earth survival. In spite of the great stability of the Sun, one is a star extremely activates. In their surface dark sunspots appear & disappear being contiguous with intense magnetic fields in cycles of 11 years. The sudofn particle outbreaks loaofd coming from the solar brilliances can cause auroras & alter the electromagnetic Earth signals; a continuous flow of protons, electrons & ions leaves the Sun & it moves by the Solar System, forming spiral with the rotation of the East Sun solar wind it forms the ion tails of comets & leaves his signs in the lunar ground; the space ship Apolo, in its mission to the surface of the Moon, brought samples to the Earth of these signs .


The main planets

            In the present time nine main planets are known. Normally they are diviofd in two groups: the inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Tierra & Mars) & the outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune & Pluto). The interiors are small & rock & iron are madeup mainly of. The exteriors (except Pluto) are more & they are madeup, mainly, of hydrogen, ice & helium.

         Mercury is very ofnse, in appearance due to its great nucleus composed of iron. With a tenuous atmosphere, Mercury has a surface marked by asteroid impacts. Venus has a carbon dioxide atmosphere (CO2) 90 times ofnser than the one of the Earth; this cause an effect conservatory that causes that the venusiana atmosphere conserves much the heat. The temperature of its surface is highest of all planets: 477 °C. The Earth is the only planet with abundant liquid water & life. Solid tests that exist Mars had, at some moment, water in their surface, but now its carbon dioxide atmosphere is so thin that the planet is dry & cold, with polar dioxide layers of solid carbon or carbonic snow. Jupiter is the greater one of planets. Its atmosphere of hydrogen & helium contains color clouds pie & their immense magnetosfera, ring & satellites, turn it into a planetary system in itself. Saturn competes with Jupiter, a more complicated ring structure & with greater number of satellites, between which is Titán, with a ofnse atmosphere. Uranus & Neptune have little hydrogen in comparison with both giant; Uranus, also with a series of ring to his around, is distinguished because it turns to 98° on the plane of his orbit. Pluto seems similar to the greatest satellites & ice creams of Jupiter & Saturn; it is so far from the Sun & he is so cold that the methane freezes in its surface.


Others components

        The asteroids are small rocky bodies that move in orbits, mainly between the orbits of Mars & Jupiter. Calculated in thousands, the asteroids have different sizes, from Ceres, with a diameter of 1,000 km, to microscopic grains. Some asteroids are turned aside towards eccentric orbits that can take more to them near the Sun. The bodies smaller than orbit the Sun are called meteoroids. Some crash against the Earth & appear in the nocturnal sky like light rays; it is called meteors to them. The rescued fragments of nominate meteorites. The studies in the laboratories on meteorites have revealed much information about the primitive conditions of our Solar System. The surfaces of Mercury, Mars & diverse satellites of planets (including our Earth Moon) show the effects of an intense asteroid impact at the beginning of the history of the Solar System. In the Earth these marks have been worn away, except in some craters of recent impact.


      Maxima approach of sounding NEAR to the Eros asteroid, the image of the right is made next to the South Pole of the asteroid


             Part of the interplanetary dust can also come from the comets, that are compound of dust & gases basically frozen, with diameters of 5 to 10 km Many comets orbit the Sun to so great distances that they can be turned aside by stars towards orbits that transport to them to the inner Solar System. As the comets come near to the Sun they release to its dust & gases forming a spectacular hair & a tail. Unofr the influence of the powerful gravitational Jupiter field, the comets, adopt some times much more small orbits. The most known it is the comet Halley, who returns to the inner Solar System every 75 years

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First appearance of the comet Halley

    This drawing is the carpet of Bayeux of the century XI, that counts the history of the conquest of England by the normandos. This scene ofscribes an appearance of the comet that later took its name from Edmund Halley

Mary Evans Picture Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.


            Its last appearance was in 1986. In 1994 July the fragments of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 hit against the of the atmosphere of Jupiter at 210,000 speeds of km/h. With the impact, the enormous kinetic energy of fragments became heat through gigantic explosions, forming mayores fire balls that the Earth. The surfaces of the frozen satellites of outer planets is marked by the impacts of the nuclei of comets. In fact, the asteroid Chiron, who orbits between Saturn & Uranus, can be an enormous inactive comet. Of similar form, some of the asteroids that cross the Earth orbit can be the rocky rest of extinguished comets.


Movements of planets & its satellites

            If it were possible to be watched towards the Solar System over the Earth North Pole, would seem that the planets moved around the Sun in opposite direction of the one of the needles of the clock. All the planets, except Venus & Uranus, turn on their axis in the same direction. All the system is enough plane -- only the orbits of Mercury & Pluto are inclined. The one of Pluto she is so elliptical that there are moments that approach more the Sun than Neptune.

            The systems of satellites follows the same behavior that their main planets, but occur many exceptions. As much Jupiter, as Saturn & Neptune have one or more satellites than move around to his in retrograde orbits (in the sense of the needles of the clock) & many orbits of satellites are very elliptical. Jupiter, in addition, has catched two asteroid accumulations (the Troyans calls), that are ahead to 60° & behind the planet in their orbits around the Sun. (Some Saturn satellites have catched of similar form smaller bodies). The comets show to a distribution of orbits around the more or less spherical Sun.

             Within this labyrinth of movements, are some remarkable resonances: Mercury turns three times around its axis by each two revolutions around the Sun; asteroids with periods of 1/2, 1/3 do not exist..., 1/n (where n is a whole number) of the period of Jupiter; the three inner Jupiter satellites, discovered by Galileo, have periods in proportion 4:2:1. These & other examples of monstrate the subtle own balance of forces of a gravitational system made up of many bodies.


    Theories on the origin

            In spite of their differences, the members of the Solar System form probably a common family; it seems to be that they originated to the same time.

             Between the first attempts to explain the origin of this system is the nebular hypothesis of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant & the astronomer & French mathematician Pierre Simon of Laplace. In agreement with this theory a gas cloud fragmented in ring that was conofnsed forming planets. The doubts on the stability of these ring have taken to some scientists to consiofr some hypotheses of catastrophes as the one of a violent encounter between the Sun & another star. These encounter are very rare, & the hot gases, disorganized by the tiofs would disperse instead of being conofnsed to form planets.

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Immanuel Kant

   The German philosopher of century XVIII Immanuel Kant explored the possibilities that the reason can govern the world of the experience. In its critics to science, moral & art, Kant tried to extract universal norms to which, according to him, all rational person would have to subscribe. In their Critic of the pure reason (1781) Kant maintained that the people cannot incluof/unofrstand the nature of the things in the Universe, but can be rationally safe that they experience it by themselves. Within this sphere of the experience, fundamental slight knowledge as space & time are certain.

Hulton ofutsch Collection

            The present theories connect the formation of the Solar System with the formation of the Sun, happened makes 4,700 million years. Perhaps the fragmentation & the gravitational collapse of an interstellar cloud of gas & dust, caused by the explosions of one supernovate near, can have lead to the formation of a fundamental solar nebula. The Sun would have formed then in the central region, ofnser. The temperature is so high near the Sun that even the silicates, relatively ofnse, have difficulty to form there. This phenomenon can explain the presence near the Sun of a planet like Mercury, that has a small silicate envelope & a greater ofnse iron nucleus of the usual thing. (It is easier for the dust & steam of iron to agglutinate near the central region of a solar nebula that stops the lightest silicates.) To great distances of the center of the solar nebula, the gases are conofnsed in solids like which they are today in the external part of Jupiter. The eviofnce of a possible explosion of superNova of previous formation appears in form of anomalous isotope plans in the small inclusions of some meteorites. This association of the planet formation with the star formation suggests thousands of million other stars of our galaxy also can have planets. The abundance of multiple & binary stars, as well as of great systems of satellites around Jupiter & Saturn, testifies the tenofncy of gas clouds to disintegrate itself fragmenting in systems of multiple bodies.


Discoveries & location of objects of the Solar System

        Next they expose the date of the discoveries of planets, satellites, comets & asteroids discovered by me until the date.

       If some data consists like 00 must be unofrstood that the exact day of the discovery is not known. Of these, it is governed by the following ones:


  Venus First Friday of April.
Jupiter First Thursday of March.
Io, Europa, Ganimede & Callixto Second Thursday of March.
Mars First Tuesday of March.
Saturn First Saturday of March.
Titan First Saturday of May.


        It exists a calendar of these & other dates in format different in my Web

         In the note section mentions some outstanding characteristic of the discovered object.

         Next, in Table, exposes the exposed thing previously.


Object Type Date Notes
Venus Planet

March 00th, 1980

1st planet discovered in Taurus.
Jupiter Planet

March 00th, 1982

Before March 18th
Io Satellite

March 00th, 1982

Before March 18th
Europa Satellite

March 00th, 1982

Before March 18th
Ganymede Satellite

March 00th, 1982

Before March 18th
Callixto Satellite

March 00th, 1982

Before March 18th
Mars Planet

March 00th, 1982

Before March 18th
Saturn Planet

March 00th, 1982

Before March 18th
Uranus Planet

May 14th, 1983

Conjuntion with Jupiter
Titan Satellite

May 00th, 1984

Halley Comet

Nov. 03rd, 1985

In Taurus
Neptune Planet

May 23rd, 1987

Whit R-90mm. in Sagitarius.
Rhea Satellite

June 05th, 1987

Mercury Planet

June 07th, 1987

With finderscope 7x50 mm, in Gemini
Bradfield Comet

Nov. 28th, 1987

From Inca, Mallorca, Spain in Aquila.
Vesta Asteroid

March 26th, 1988

1st asteroid discovered
Yapetus Satellite

June 17th, 1988

Dione Satellite

June 18th, 1988

Tethys Satellite

June 18th, 1988

Ceres Asteroid

Sep. 03rd, 1988

From Ca'n Picafort (Mallorca, Spain)
Melpomene Asteroid

Sep. 05th, 1988

From Ca'n Picafort (Mallorca, Spain)
Massalia Asteroid

June 10th, 1989

Eunomia Asteroid

July 31st, 1989

From Ca'n Picafort (Mallorca, Spain)
Hyakutake Comet

March 12sd, 1996

1996B2. From Inca (Mallorca, Spain), in Libra.
Juno Asteroid

Nov. 19th, 1996

From Inca (Mallorca, Spain) with Dance in Cetus
Hale Bopp Comet

Feb. 05th, 1997

From Inca (Mallorca, Spain), 1995O1, in Sagitta
Hebe Asteroid

Nov. 08th, 1999

From Inca (Mallorca, Spain), with Dance in Orion
Iris Asteroid

Feb. 27th, 2000

From Inca (Mallorca, Spain) with Dance in Cancer
Nysa Asteroid

Apr. 05th, 2000

From Inca (Mallorca, Spain) with Guide  v. 7.0 in Virgo.
Astraea Asteroid

May 26th, 2000

From Inca (Mallorca, Spain) with Guide v. 7.0 in Libra.
Hygiea Asteroid

May 29th, 2000

From Inca (Mallorca, Spain) with Guide v. 7.0 in Scorpius
Flora Asteroid

Aug. 27th, 2000

From Inca (Mallorca, Spain) with Guide v. 7.0 in Capricornius.
Nausikaa Asteroid

Oct. 3rd, 2000

From Inca (Mallorca, Spain) with Guide v. 7.0 very closed to  b arietis.
Bamberga Asteroid

Oct. 27th, 2000

From Inca (Mallorca, Spain) with Guide v. 7.0 very closed to  b Persei or Algol.
Athamantis Asteroid

Nov. 1st, 2000

From Inca (Mallorca, Spain) with Guide v. 7.0 very closed to  g arietis.
Pallas Asteroid

May. 21st, 2001

From Inca (Mallorca, Spain) with Guide v. 7.0 very closed to 57 Herculis.
Metis Asteroid

Feb. 7th, 2002

From Inca (Mallorca, Spain) with Guide v. 7.0 in Gemini constellation.
Bellona Asteroid

Feb. 15th, 2002

From Inca (Mallorca, Spain) with Guide v. 7.0 in Leo constellation.
Euterpe Asteroid

March 20th, 2002

From Inca (Mallorca, Spain) with Guide v. 7.0 in Leo constellation close to Virgo.
Mc-Naught Comet January 11th, 2007 From Inca (Mallorca, Spain) with findescope between Altair and Venus.
Holmes Comet October 26th, 2007 From Inca (Mallorca, Spain) with finderscope in Perseus with a full Moon.

 Masm © (Last update 10.27.2007)