C O N S T E L L A T I O N S
Anyone of the 88 groupings of stars that appear in the celestial sphere & which they take his name from religious or mithologicals figures, animals or objects. This term also talks about delimited areas of the celestial sphere that understand the star groups with an certain name.
The Greeks recognized & named forty-eight constellations. Many of these constellations were also recognized by the Arabs, Egyptians, & the Babylonian. In 1928, the International Astronomy Union fixed the boundaries of the eighty-eight constellations in the sky. Twelve constellations lie on the ecliptic & are known as "the Zodiacs." Part of Ophiuchus lies on the ecliptic, so that makes thirteen ecliptic constellations. Twenty-nine constellations are between the ecliptic & the North Celestial Pole plus the remainder of Ophiuchus. Forty-seven constellations lie between the ecliptic zone & the South Celestial Pole.
The names of the constellations are given in Latin, because Latin was once the language of learning. The names used by the Greeks, Egyptians, & other people were translated into Latin. For convenience, the ancients named the constellations after a certain figure that it seemed to form in the sky. They refer to mythological or legendary men, women, & animals.
For thousands of years, people have used their knowledge of the constellations to guide them from place to place.
Osiris & Orion
The Egyptians saw the constellation of Orion as the god Osiris holding the star Aldebaran.
Isis is represented as Sirius star, brightest star of the sky & that we can see in skies of November until March. For Egyptians their calendar it began when they observed Sirius in its orto or exit shortly before dawn, phenomenon that took place in September & that entailed the swelling of the Nile river, fundamental for the control & development of the Egyptian civilization.
By knowing the positions of the constellations, it is possible to locate stars, planets, comets, & meteors.
The constellations appear to move westward as the Earth rotates around the axis. For this reason, certain constellations can be seen only during one of the seasons of the year
Celestial sphereIn order to describe the position of the celestial objects, astronomy supposes that all of them are to the same Earth distance, in the surface of an imaginary globe called celestial sphere. The coordinates of a celestial object are the right ascension & the declination, that define in relation to the poles & the celestial equator, located over terrestrial ones. The ecliptic is the apparent annual trajectory of the Sun through the sky
The drawings of constellations older than are known are reasons done in shells, bowls & boards of game of the sumerians , that indicate that the the 4000 b.C. constellations already had been established. The sumerians gave to the name to the constellation Aquarius, in honor to their God An , that spills the water of immortality on the Earth. The Babylonians already had divided the zodiac in 12 equal signs towards the 450 b.C. The present constellations of the North hemisphere are different little from which the heatings & old the Egyptians knew. Homero & Hesiod mentioned the constellations & Greek poet Arato Soli, gave a verse description of 44 constellations in his Phaenomena.
The armies Greek & troyano prepare the war of Troy (century XII a.C.), the most famous battle of western mythology. At the same time, the Gods meet to discuss on the destiny of the human beings & to decide if they allow to fix his disputes them of a Pacific way or activate the forces that both ended the side destruction and, with it, of all the civilization. Attributed to the classic writer Greek Homero, the Iliada dates from century IX b.C.
Tolomeo , astronomer & Greek mathematician, in the Almagesto, described 48 constellations, of which, 47 are continued knowing by the same name.
In century II a.C., Claudius Tolomeo raised a model of the Universe with the Earth in the center. In the model, the Earth she remains stationary while the planets, the Moon & the Sun describe complicated orbits around her. Apparently, to Tolomeo it worried to him that the model worked from the mathematical point of view, & not as much that described the planetary movement accurately. Although later its incorrección was demonstrated, the model of Tolomeo was accepted during several centuries. Mary Evans Picture Library/Photo Researchers, Inc..
In the antiquity , many other towns grouped stars in constellations, although its disposition does not correspond with those of the old West. However, some Chinese constellations are looked like the western ones, indicating the possibility of a common origin. At the end of century XVI, the first European explorers of the seas of the South drew up maps of the austral hemisphere. The Dutch navigator Pieter Dirckz Keyser, who participated in the exploration of the Eastern Indians in 1595 added new constellations. Later they were added to other constellations of the South hemisphere by the German astronomer Johann Bayer -- who published the first extensive celestial atlas of the western world: Uranometría --, by Hevelius & the French astronomer Nicolas Louis of the Caille. Many others proposed new constellations, but the astronomers finally decided a list 88. However, the limits of the constellations continued being discussion subject until 1930, when the Astronomical Union the International fixed these limits.
In order to designate approximately 1,300 shining stars, the genitive of the name of the constellations is used, preceded by a Greek letter; this system was introduced by Johann Bayer.
For example, the famous star Algol, in the Perseo constellation is named by b Persei.
Discovered to date
Next one indicates the exact dates of the day of descubrimento of the visible constellations from a latitude of +40º, that are visible from the island of Majorca, Spain & all discovered there ordered per dates.
The rest of constellations that are very to the south, & therefore, inferior to a declination of -50º & hair nets from Majorca Spain. They are pending of which it can discover them in a trip to the seas of the south. (Dream of the author).
The indicated ones with * indicate that it leaves from them are visible from Majorca, Spain but not all the structure.
It exists another format in the Web with these dates & others of different objects from the Solar System, characterized by calendar. In addition an ample information of each one of them, its mythology, history, characteristics and observations by telescope made exists to date that podeis to visit in a the Web.
It exists on my web celestial charts pointed at next coordenates to find them any constellations at celestial sphere with theirs names of stars, more importants, & the international limits of each one constellations that they are accepted by I.A.U.
|Constellation||Nom.||Date of discovery||Notes|
|Cygnus||Cyg||August 9th, 1981||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Orion||Ori||December 7th, 1981||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Taurus||Tau||December 7th, 1981||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Canis Major||CMa||December 14th, 1981||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Canis Minor||CMi||December 14th, 1981||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Lepus||Lep||December 14th, 1981||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Gemini||Gem||January 1st, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Auriga||Aur||January 1st, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Monoceros||Mon||January 1st, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Hydra||Hya||January 1st, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Cancer||Cnc||January 2nd, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Leo||Leo||January 2nd, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Ursa Major||UMa||January 2nd, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Cassiopea||Cas||January 2nd, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Leo Minor||LMi||January 2nd, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Ursa Minor||UMi||January 2nd, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Perseus||Per||January 22nd, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Andromeda||And||January 22nd, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Aries||Ari||January 22nd, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Triangulum||Tri||January 22nd, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Canes Venatici||CVn||January 22nd, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Draco||Dra||January 30th, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Corvus||Crv||January 30th, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Bootes||Boo||February 28th, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Virgo||Vir||March 18th, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Corona Borealis||CrB||March 18th, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Serpens Caput||SCp||April 15th, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Hercules||Her||April 15th, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Libra||Lib||April 15th, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Lyra||Lyr||April 15th, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Lynx||Lyn||April 17th, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Cepheus||Cep||April 17th, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Ophiuchus||Oph||April 17th, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Serpens Cauda||SCd||April 17th, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Aquila||Aql||April 17th, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Scorpius||Sco||April 17th, 1982||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Pegasus||Peg||Jyly 4th, 1982||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Delphinus||Del||July 16th, 1982||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Capricornius||Cap||August10th, 1982||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Sagitta||Sge||August 10th, 1982||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Aquarius||Aqr||Augugst 10th, 1982||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Piscis||Psc||August 24th, 1982||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Cetus||Cet||September 16th, 1982||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Lacerta||Lac||September 16th, 1982||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Sagitarius||Sgr||October 10th, 1982||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Scutum||Sct||June 29th, 1984||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Eridianus||Eri||November 12th, 1984||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Vulpecula||Vul||June 21st, 1985||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Equuleus||Equ||June 23rd, 1985||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Corona Australis||CrA||August 12th, 1985||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Piscis Austrinus||PsA||August 17th, 1985||Inca, Mallorca, Spain|
|Fornax||For||October 11th, 1985||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Scultor||Scl||October 12th, 1985||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Columba||Col||November 9th, 1985||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Puppis||Pup||December 14th, 1985||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Pyxis||Pyx||December 15th, 1985||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Sextans||Sex||December 22nd, 1985||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Antlia||Ant||January 5th, 1986||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Crater||Crt||April 1st, 1986||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Coma Berenice||Com||April 1st, 1986||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Centaurus||Cen||May 2nd, 1986||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain *|
|Lupus||Lup||May 2nd, 1986||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain *|
|Camelopardalis||Cam||August 11th, 1986||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Vela||Vel||January 31st, 1987||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain *|
|Microscopium||Mic||September 22nd, 1989||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
|Phoenix||Phe||October 21st, 1989||Son Serra, Mallorca, Spain|
|Grux||Gru||October28th, 1989||Son Serra, Mallorca, Spain|
|Caelum||Cae||December 8th, 1989||Ca'n Picafort, Mallorca, Spain|
Masm(Last update 01.31.2004)