Agamenon  V E N U S

 

            It is spoken sometimes of Venus like of Earth binocular, and by the way there is affinity in the purely physical dimensions of both planets. Venus has a diameter similar to the Earth, 12,231 km Compared with 12,757 km of diameter of the Earth, although Venus is lighter, having a 17% less of mass. Venus turns around the Sun in 225 days to a distance of 108 million kilometers, which places to him inner to the Earth orbit, like an inferior planet. The consequence of this is that Venus, from the Earth, and   like Mercury pretends to move by the sky near the Sun, with a elongación Maxima that never exceeds 48º. A day of Venus is equivalent to 243 of the Earth, which means that Venus takes more in turning on its own axis that what takes in turning Still more around the Sun, Venus turns in opposite direction (of this a the west) of most of other planets of the Solar System, being placed in a category aside not only by its exceptional beauty but also by its physical characteristics.

 

Distance from the Sun
(Semimajor axis of orbit)
108,208,930 km
0.72333199 A.U.

Mean Equatorial Radius
6,051.8 km
(0.9488 of Earth's radius)

Volume (Earth = 1)
0.88

Mass
4.8690 x 1027g
Density
5.24 gm/cm3
Surface Gravity
887 cm/s2
Escape Velocity (at equator)
10.36 km/s

Sidereal Rotation Period
-243.0187 days (retrograde)
Sidereal Orbit Period (Earth years)
0.61518257 years

Mean Orbit Velocity
35.0214 km/s

Orbit Eccentricity
0.00677323

Orbit Inclination to Ecliptic
3.39471 degrees

Inclination of Equator to Orbit
177.3 degrees

Mean Temperature at Solid Surface
730 K

Major Atmospheric Constituents
CO2, N2

Natural Satellites
None

        The visibility of a planet depends on its capacity to reflect the solar light. The dense cloudy atmosphere that surrounds to Venus allows that good part of the light that affects the planet reflects and, like result, that determined phases of Venus much more emphasizes in brightness that any other celestial object, aside from the Sun and of the Moon. In one night without Moon, and with good weather, it is possible to observe the shades that the blancoazulada light of Venus throws.

          The cultural comparisons of the symbolism of Venus reveal so many difference as similarities. The light of Venus, that stops many European is so pretty, is seen with apprehension in the traditional Chinese astrology. To Venus the Great White by its color was called, but in China was considered it unfortunate, ominous and fantasmal. Whenever the Great White appeared in the sky thought that it meant arms and punishment. This association arises from its property in the beginning yin, dark negative and (opposed yang, luminous positive and). The appearance of the Great White to total light of the day (thing that can happen exactly after the dawn or, sometimes, before growing dark, when Venus approaches its Maxima elongación) supposed that yin surpassed yang and, for that reason, difficulties for the sovereign originating of the inferior orders. Of course that similar reactions depend on the persuasion of the participants; for example, exactly the end of six days of to have acceded Li Yuan to the throne of the worn down Sui dynasty, founding therefore the illustrious Tang dynasty (that it lasted three centuries), the great White appeared to the blue light of the day (24 of June of 618), thing that was interpreted like a celestial blessing. The secondary name of the Great White, Metallic Fire , relates to the planet to the metal, one of the five elements of Chinese metaphysics, and indicates the association of the shining sparkle of Venus with the light that the arms reflect.

 

venchi.GIF (25942 bytes)

Lao-tsé

       The legend attributes to the Tao Te-King (Book of the Channel and the Virtue), sacred book of the taoísmo, to Lao-tsé, a Chinese philosopher who perhaps taught to Confucius. The historians differ in if Lao-tsé wrote or not the Tao given Te-King the discrepancy between the date of sacred books (200 to 100 a.C.) and the one of the life of Lao-tsé (around the 500 a.C.). Most of the authorities in the matter he accepts now that an anonymous taoísta had to write up writings using like pseudonym the name of the great wise person. The taoísmo stresses the importance of the irreflexiva unit with the order of the Universe and that takes when natural flowing of the things.

      

         The aspect soldier of Venus is specially clear in the Mayan mythology, that associates it to the light of the day and the God of Chac rain, identified with Tlaloc, the Aztec God of rain and the disasters. The Mayans established, in century IV, a ritual institution called Tlaloc-Venus War , that supposed the conquest of territory and the capture of sacrificiales victims. Still more, the decisions on when and where there was to establish battle were synchronous by the cycles of Venus and Jupiter.

Tlatoc

Tláloc

         The Aztec God Tláloc appears in this illustration in all its espledor: crowned of heron pens and scattering maize seeds and frijol that later its rain will make germinate. The this fresh God of rain is in the Anthropological Museum of City of Mexico.

   

         Nevertheless, one is only about a facet of the main role played by Venus in the mesoamericana culture . Most important of all the Gods, the emplumada serpent Quetzalcóatl, was identified with Venus as it stars in the morning, to leave exactly by the east before the dawn. The evidence of the table of Venus in the Codex de Dresde , that dates approximately from century XII, provides a clear image of the Mayan system of ritual calendar, completely related to the observation of this planet. The mesoamericanos observers of the sky had at one first time a precise compression of the sinódico cycle of 584 days of Venus, according to the planet he happens through his phases of matutinal and vespertine star. The table of Venus registers 65 of these cycles of 584 days; altogether, 37960 days. This with 146 of the accounts of 260 days of the Mayan calendar and with 104 years solar of 365 days of the Mayan town agrees. These exact multiples within the cycle of Venus elevated between Mayan the rank of the planet over any other. In its heliac exit (when is observed for the first time it exactly before the exit of the Sun), Quetzalcóatl planet is to the God throwing the lances of its overwhelming rays and crossing its enemies.

Azteca

Aztec calendar

                This immense monolith is conserved in the mexica room of the National Museum of Anthropology of the city of Mexico from the 27 of June of 1964. In order to transport it until from the Socle 30 days and one enormous platform were used there. In its surface the compendium of the astronomical and cosmogonic knowledge of the Aztec civilization is carved.

           

            In some zones of old Mexico , to Venus was contemplated it with fear. The indigenous towns closed windows and doors before the exit of the Sun to protect itself of the harmful rays of Venus, to which they considered carriers of diseases and death, in agreement Venus left to the time that the Sun.

   

          The mesopotamic interpretation of skies provides spyings to us of a Venus different from the planet of the love according to our habitual western interpretation. The original deity sumeria associated with Venus was Inanna , but the influence of this goddess was absorbed first, and combined later with her, by the one of Attar , a masculine semítica deity, that entered form leaves from mesopotámica mythology. Soon, the God Attar evolved until being the Ishtar goddess, being the result a bisexual Venus; Ishtar, the star in the morning, is masculine, while Ishtar, the star of afternoon, is feminine. Like example of the important nature of these interpretations, to Ishtar was also identified it with Astarté, that became one of the origins of our celebration of the festivity of Passover.

Attar

   

            In its feminine aspect, Ishtar comprised triad great of the mesopotamic one of the Sun, the Moon and Venus. She was daughter of Without, the Moon, and sister of Shamash, the Sun. In their temple two groups of women strave; the one of prostitutas sagradas and the one of putas commercial 8deben to remember that one of the epítetos of Ishatar is the one that roams. This sexual image of Ishtar provided the base for the identification Greek goddess of Aphrodite with the idea of regidor of the erotic love.

Venus

 

 Masm © (Last update 08.29.2006)